How the keys and locks work?

How the keys and locks work?

Keys and locks are indispensable things in our lives. Needless to say, the entrances and exits of homes, shops, offices, etc., drawers, vaults, safes, mailboxes, bicycles, motorcycles, cars, etc., all need to be used Locks and keys, locks and keys are important things to keep our property and life. Knowing the correct knowledge about locks and keys is very important for a safe and secure life.

Pin Tumbler Lock

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1. The history of locks

The earliest prototype of the lock dates back to BC. It is rumored that China has found wooden locks in the Yangshao culture site. The earliest locks in the West are Egyptian locks, which are a kind of Pin Tumbler Lock. Although cylindrical locks are the most common nowadays, bump locks were more commonly used in Europe in the Middle Ages. Simple padlocks made with this structure are also commonly used now.
5000 years ago Egyptian lock
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There are various ways to classify locks and keys, and here are mainly classified and introduced according to the structure of the lock. The locks currently in use can be mainly divided into bump locks, rod locks, cylindrical locks, and others.
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2. Bump lock

The bump lock was made in ancient Rome, and it is still used for padlocks and simple backpack locks. Speaking of structure, there is an obstacle called a bump inside the lock. If it is the correct key, it can pass through the gap shape on the key without touching the bump to rotate smoothly.
Bump lock made in Italy
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The principle of the bump lock is very simple. If the shape is too simple, it will be easy to open the lock, and it is also easy to make a spare key. Even making a master key is not difficult. Therefore, in order to make it difficult to pick the lock and copy the key, the shape of the bump lock has to be more complicated.
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3. Lever lock

The lever lock was invented by the British around the 18th century. Now padlocks, drawers, and earlier automatic doors are still in use. Inside the lock there is a plate-shaped barrier called a lever lock spring. The lock spring has a groove and an H-shaped groove. There is a raised part in the latch that is received in this groove.
Lever lock
Insert the key into the lock hole, turn the key, the protrusion on the key will push up the lever lock spring, continue to rotate the key, the protrusion on the door bolt can pass through the H slot, thereby allowing the door bolt to move. If it is not the correct key, there is no way for the protrusion to pass through the H slot smoothly and it cannot be opened. Generally, even if there are more rod lock springs with 3 pieces, 5 pieces are very safe.
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4. Cylindrical lock

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The cylinder lock is divided into an outer cylinder and an inner cylinder. The outer cylinder fixes the lock core, while the inner cylinder is provided with a lock hole. A barrier is set between the two cylinders. Without the key or the key is wrong, the inner cylinder cannot be rotated, only all the barriers are in place. In the correct position, the inner cylinder can rotate. Cylinder locks are divided into several types according to the shape of shoji and the principle of movement. Representatives include blade locks, pin locks, rotating disc locks, and magnetic locks.
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The leaf lock is a cylindrical lock that uses a reed as a shroud. The reed of the earliest leaf lock is round, and the shape and principle are similar to the rotating disc lock mentioned later, which is slightly different from the current leaf lock. In addition, it is in English. The current blade lock is called Wafer tumbler lock.
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When the leaf lock is not inserted with the key, the leaf reed is stuck between the inner cylinder and the outer cylinder. Only after the correct key is inserted, can the leaf reed drop (or rise, and there may be up and down) into the inner cylinder, thereby rotating the inner cylinder. cylinder.
How Cylindrical lock worksHow Cylindrical lock worksHow Cylindrical lock works
The blade lock has a relatively simple structure, low security, and is widely used (drawer lock, mailbox lock), so it is the lock type that thieves prefer.
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5. Pin Tumbler Lock

It can be said to be the most widely used lock type at present. Generally, it is divided into two Pin Tumbler Lock, upper and lower, and the spring supports the two Pin Tumbler Lock on the outer cylinder, and clamps the inner cylinder and the outer cylinder. After inserting the correct key, the gap between the upper and lower Pin will be aligned with the gap between the inner and outer cylinders, and the inner cylinder can be rotated at this time.
Pin Tumbler Lock working principlePin Tumbler Lock working principle
The more pins in a lock, the more difficult it is to unlock. Therefore, in order to create a better defensive lock, multiple rows of pins are placed in multiple directions to form the more common cross keys and cylindrical keys.
In addition, in order to improve the performance of the pin lock against technical unlocking, the shape of the upper pin (and also the shape of the lower pin) will be changed to make special-shaped pins such as I-shaped or mushroom-shaped. Most of the pin locks made recently are of this kind.
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7. Magnetic lock

The pin lock is replaced by a magnet, and the lock is unlocked by using the characteristics of magnets of opposite sex to attract and repel each other. There are also magnets on the key. After inserting the correct key, all the magnets will return to the outer cylinder to rotate the inner cylinder.
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The advantage of the magnetic lock is that it prevents the pin from making physical contact with the key, so the pin cannot be seen from the keyhole, so it is completely impossible to use the traditional method to unlock the lock. However, because the magnet has only two magnetic poles, it is impossible to make different combinations by adjusting the height of the pin like a pin lock, which reduces the combination. Therefore, there are cases where a magnetic lock and a pin lock are used in combination. However, there may also be cases where the magnet falls off, the magnetic force is weakened, etc., resulting in a situation where the door cannot be opened even with a key.
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8. Special lock

In addition to the above-mentioned common locks, there are also locks that are made with the latest technology and are more defensive and convenient. There are mainly password locks, card locks, IC card locks, biometric authentication locks, etc.
Electronic locks
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